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Venda language

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Venda
Tshivenḓa
Native to South Africa, Zimbabwe
Region Limpopo Province
Native speakers
1.3 million (2011 census)[1]
1.7 million L2 speakers in South Africa (2002)[2]
Language family
Niger–Congo
  • Atlantic–Congo
    • Benue–Congo
      • Southern Bantoid
        • Bantu
          • Southern Bantu
            • Venda
Writing system
Latin (Venda alphabet)
Venda Braille
Signed forms
Signed Venda
Official status
Official language in
 South Africa
 Zimbabwe
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ve
ISO 639-2 ven
ISO 639-3 ven
Glottolog vend1245[3]
Guthrie code
S.20 (S.21)[4]
Linguasphere 99-AUT-b incl. varieties
99-AUT-baa to 99-AUT-bad
South Africa 2011 Venda speakers proportion map.svg
Geographical distribution of Tshivenda in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Tshivenda at home.
South Africa 2011 Venda speakers density map.svg
Geographical distribution of Tshivenda in South Africa: density of Tshivenda home-language speakers.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa. It is mainly spoken by the Venda people in the northern part of South Africa's Limpopo Province, as well as by some Lemba people in Zimbabwe. The Venda language is related to Kalanga (Western Shona, different from Shona, official language of Zimbabwe) which is spoken in Botswana and Zimbabwe. During the Apartheid era of South Africa, the bantustan of Venda was set up to cover the Venda speakers of South Africa.

Contents

  • 1 Distribution of Venda speakers
  • 2 Writing system
    • 2.1 Luṱhofunḓeraru lwa Mibvumo
  • 3 Phonology
  • 4 Tone
    • 4.1 Unicode
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links
    • 6.1 Software
  • 7 Bibliography

Distribution of Venda speakers[edit]

According to the 2011 census, Venda speakers are concentrated in the following areas: Makhado Local Municipality, with 350,000 people; Thulamela Local Municipality, with 370,000 people; Musina Local Municipality, with 35,000 people; and Mutale Local Municipality, with 89,000 people. The total number of speakers in Vhembe district currently stands at 844,000. In Gauteng province, there are 275,000 Venda speakers. Fewer or less than 10,000 people are spread across South Africa and that makes total number of Venda speakers in South Africa at 1.2 million people or just 2.2% of South Africa's population, making Venda speakers the second smallest minority language in South Africa, after the Ndebele language, which number 1.1 million speakers.

Writing system[edit]

The Venda language uses the Latin alphabet with five additional accented letters—there are four dental consonants with circumflex below the letter (ḓ, ḽ, ṋ, ṱ) and an overdot for velar . Five vowel letters are used to write seven vowels. The letters C, J and Q are used only in quoting foreign words and names.

The Venda alphabet
A a B b (C c) D d Ḓ ḓ E e F f G g
H h I i (J j) K k L l Ḽ ḽ M m N n
Ṋ ṋ Ṅ ṅ O o P p (Q q) R r S s T t
Ṱ ṱ U u V v W w X x Y y Z z

Luṱhofunḓeraru lwa Mibvumo[edit]

The sintu writing system Isibheqe Sohlamvu/Ditema tsa Dinoko, known technically in Venda as Luṱhofunḓeraru lwa Mibvumo, is also used for the Venda language.[citation needed]

ṱala "divorce"
[t̪ʼaːɽa]
tala "draw a line"
[tʼaːɽa]

Phonology[edit]

Venda distinguishes dental ṱ, ṱh, ḓ, ṋ, ḽ from alveolar t, th, d, n, l, as well as (like the Ewe) labiodental f, v from bilabial fh, vh (the latter are slightly rounded). There are no clicks; x has the sound of ch in loch or Bach. As in other South African languages like the Zulu, ph, ṱh, th, kh are aspirated, p, ṱ, t, k ejective.

t̪ʰ kʷʰ
t̪ʼ pʷʼ
b d ɡ
pfʰ tsʰ tsʷʰ tʃʰ
bv dz dzʷ
ɸ f s ʃ x h
β v z ʒ
m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ
l
r
j w

There is fortition of /ɸ β s ʃ x h l̪ l r w/ after nasal prefixes, likely to [pʰ? b tsʰ tʃʰ kʰ? pʰ d̪ d d b].[5]

letter(s) value(s) in IPA notes
a [a], [ɔ]
b [b]
bv [b̪v]
bw [bɣw] or [bj] Varies by dialect
d [d]
dz [d͡z]
dzh [d͡ʒ] Similar to English "j"
dzw [d͡zw]
[d̪]
e [ɛ], [e]
f [f]
fh [ɸ]
g [ɡ]
h [ɦ], [h] Pronounced [h] before e.
hw [ɣw]
i [i]
k [kˀ]
kh [kʰ]
khw [kʰw]
l [ɭ]
[l̪]
m [m], [m̩] M is syllabic, [m̩], when the following syllable begins with m.
n [n], [n̩] N is syllabic, when the following syllable begins with n.
ng [ŋɡ]
ny [ɲ]
nz [nd͡z]
[n̪]
[ŋ]
ṅw [ŋw]
o [ɔ], [o]
p [pˀ]
ph [pʰ]
pf [p̪f]
pfh [p̪fʰ]
r [ɾ]
s [s]
sh [ʃ]
sw [ʂ]
t [tˀ]
th [tʰ]
ts [t͡s]
tsh [t͡ʃʰ]
tsw [t͡sw]
ty [c]
[t̪]
ṱh [t̪h]
u [u]
v [v]
vh [β]
w [w]
x [x] Similar to the ch in Scottish 'loch.'
xw [xw]
y [j]
z [z]
zh [ʒ]
zw [ʐ]

Tone[edit]

Venda has a single specified tone, HIGH, with unmarked syllables having a low tone. Phonetic falling tone occurs, but only in sequences of more than one vowel, or on the penultimate syllable, where the vowel is long. Tone patterns exist independently of the consonants and vowels of a word: that is, they are word tones. Venda tone also follows Meeussen's rule: when a word beginning with a high tone is preceded by that high tone, the initial high tone is lost. (That is, there cannot be two adjacent marked high tones in a word, though high tone spreads allophonically to a following non-tonic ("low"-tone) syllable.) There are only a handful of tone patterns in Venda words—no tone, a single high tone on some syllable, two non-adjacent high tones—which behave as follows:

Word Pattern After L After H Notes
thamana –.–.– thàmà:nà thámâ:nà Unmarked (low) tone is raised after a high tone. That is, the preceding tone spreads.
dukaná –.–.H dùkà:ná dúkâ:ná A preceding high tone spreads, but drops before the final high tone.
danána –.H.– dàná:nà dánâ:nà The pitch peaks on the tonic syllable; a preceding non-adjacent high tone merges into it
phaphána –.H.– phàphá:ná pháphâ:nà
mádzhie H.– má:dzhíè mâ:dzhìè Initial high tone spreads; with an immediately preceding high tone, that initial tone is lost.
(The preceding tone also spreads, but not as far.)
dákalo H.–.– dáká:lò dákà:lò
khókholá H.–.H khókhô:lá khókhò:lá

Unicode[edit]

The extra letters have the following Unicode names

  • Ḓ U+1E12 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • ḓ U+1E13 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • Ḽ U+1E3C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • ḽ U+1E3D LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • Ṅ U+1E44 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE
  • ṅ U+1E45 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE
  • Ṋ U+1E4A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • ṋ U+1E4B LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • Ṱ U+1E70 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • ṱ U+1E71 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW


References[edit]

  1. ^ Venda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Webb, Vic. 2002. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development." Impact: Studies in language and society, 14:78
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Venda". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  5. ^ Jeff Mielke, 2008. The emergence of distinctive features, p 139ff

External links[edit]

  • PanAfrican L10n page on Venda
  • Wikipedia in Venda
  • Young kasahorow Dictionary in Venda

Software[edit]

  • Translate.org.za Project to translate Free and Open Source Software into all the official languages of South Africa including Venda

Bibliography[edit]

  • G. Poulos, 1990, A linguistic analysis of Venda


Venda

(redirected from Vendas )
Also found in: Thesaurus , Encyclopedia .

Ven·da

  (vĕn′də) n. 1. A member of a people of northeast South Africa constituting the principal inhabitants of a former self-governing black homeland of the same name. 2. The Bantu language of the Venda.

Venda

( ˈvɛndə ) n pl -da or -das 1. (Peoples) a member of a Negroid people of southern Africa, living chiefly in NE South Africa 2. (Languages) the language of this people, belonging to the Bantu group of the Niger-Congo family but not easily related to any other members of the group

Venda

( ˈvɛndə ) n (Placename) a former Bantu homeland in South Africa, near the Zimbabwe border; abolished in 1993. Capital: Thohoyandou

Ven•da

(ˈvɛn də)

n. a self-governing black homeland in NE South Africa: granted independence in 1979. 513,890; 2510 sq. mi. (6500 sq. km). Cap.: Thohoyandou. Translations βένδα Venda

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Feedback Flashcards & Bookmarks ? Please log in or register to use Flashcards and Bookmarks. You can also log in with Flashcards ? My bookmarks ? +  Add current page to bookmarks TheFreeDictionary presents: Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Mentioned in ? References in periodicals archive ? Implementing agency : MunicE[degrees]pio de Vendas Novas Electricity Especificamente, este estudo aborda o estilo, os modos de sociabilidade e as estrategias de vendas ali inauguradas, observando como esse modelo de negocios estruturou as praticas de consumo tais como sao experimentadas hoje. Business and magic: Emile Zola, au bonheur des Dames and modern consumption/Negocios e magias: Emile Zola, au bonheur des Dames e o consumo moderno/Negocios y magias: Emile Zola, au bonheur des Dames y el consumo moderno Em outras palavras, o que mais nos chama a atencao no contexto atual de crise da industria da musica, por um lado, e a perda de valor dos fonogramas gravados e comercializados em varios suportes e a pouca disposicao dos consumidores em pagar por eles; por outro lado, constata-se a consolidacao do setor de vendas dos fonogramas digitais e, ao mesmo tempo, um crescimento expressivo da musica ao vivo em varios paises. Carencia de dados e desafios metodologicos para o desenvolvimento dos estudos da industria da musica Nenhum editor brasileiro jamais poderia esperar nem mesmo uma fracao daquele numero de vendas , mas Theodore Purdy, da Macmillan, lhe explicou que, tambem nos Estados Unidos, poucos livros vendiam mais do que 100 mil exemplares. Erico Verissimo, a Brazilian Cultural Ambassador in the United States/Erico Verissimo, um embaixador cultural nos Estados Unidos/Erico Verissimo, embajador cultural en Estados Unidos/Erico Verissimo: un ambassadeur culturel aux Etats-Unis Os efeitos dos creditos sobre o investimento sao demonstrados por meio de tres indicadores: valor presente dos creditos a recuperar/valor dos creditos; valor presente dos creditos a recuperar/valor do investimento; valor presente dos creditos a recuperar/retorno sobre vendas . El costo tributario de los proyectos de inversion: el caso de los creditos del ICMS Tambem trabalham na loja Pedro (Vendedor), que faz vendas internas e um trabalho de prospeccao de clientes, externamente, e que tem formacao superior em artes cenicas e curso tecnico em decoracao, e Rafael (Auxiliar Geral), palhaco de circo nas horas vagas, que cuida do deposito e dos estoques e faz o trabalho de arremates nos moveis, quando necessario. Strategy formation as a collective process and multiple cultural perspectives: a qualitative study in an exclusive furniture store/ Formacao de estrategia como um processo coletivo e multiplas perspectivas culturais: um estudo qualitativo em uma loja exclusiva de moveis/ Formacion de estrategia como un proceso colectivo y multiples perspectivas culturales: un estudio cualitativo en una tienda de muebles exclusiva Una vez se desprenden las placas necroticas, se cubren las ulceras con el aposito de hydrofiber con plata Aquacel plata [R] humedecido con suero fisiologico y se tapan con Varihesive [R], protegiendo la zona de la herida con venda de algodon Velband [R] y vendas elasticas de crepe hipoalergica Baxcrepe Plus [R]). Actuacion de enfermeria ante un paciente con calcifilaxis The Portuguese are a peaceful people, but there is a limit to how much they can take," Antonio Mendes, a local government councillor from Vendas Novas, said. Portuguese decry austerity measures Movimentacoes: Venda : registra as vendas realizadas aos clientes. WAEI/MSE: an instance of the WAE process for micro and small software enterprises/WAEI/MSE: uma instancia do processo WAE para micro e pequenas empresas de software Já as oportunidades surgem em função do potencial de vendas em outros países. Consorcio de exportacao como alternativa de pequenas e medias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia textil No entanto, esta abordagem de desenvolvimento mudou com as inovacoes sanitarias, quimicas, motomecanicas e geneticas, passando a ser medida por outros indicadores, tais como o capital instalado, a distribuicao dos gastos, o valor das vendas , entre outros (Veiga, 2000). Aspects of the agricultural exploration of settled families in two rural villages in the municipality of Rio Negro, Parana State (Brazil)/ Aspectos da exploracao agropecuaria das familias assentadas em duas vilas rurais localizadas no municipio de Rio Negro, Estado do Parana Its Losango Promotora de Vendas franchise of 16,000 branches has more than seven million customers and also provides wholesale banking to companies. Chief trebles stake in S&N
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